User testing in Ethiopia and Cambodia

The main objective of the user test in Ethiopia and Cambodia has been to discover weaknesses in the GDL web application. The focus has been on both technical weaknesses and on usability issues. The tests have been performed on both wireless networks and cellular networks in Addis Ababa and in a rural area outside of Phnom Penh Cambodia. Detailed descriptions have been given to test participants on what step to execute. The tests have been recorded using Lookback (https://lookback.io) where both, sound, screen, clicks and face has been recorded.

User test highlights

1) Navigation to find book works well

All test subjects were successful in finding books and navigating to books on their language. All test subject was successful in navigating by using the menu. Som subjects did not understand the meaning of the menu icon.

2) Reading book

All test subjects were able to find a book and start reading by clicking the read button. All test subjects were able to navigate pages using click or swipe. All subject understood how many pages they had read and how many pages were remaining.

3) Close book

Nearly all test subjects had difficulties finding the close-book feature. In addition to this, the subjects who found the button had a difficulty clicking on it due to its positioning and size.

4) Download book

The test subjects did not understand the difference between ePub and PDF. Most of the test subjects selected PDF both for print and for reading later.

5) Load more

Users did not notice the load more feature.

6) Finding a specific book

When users were instructed to find a specific book, it was clear that a need for a search-function is essential.

Mobile picture in the dark

GDL reusing open source code and design

The Global Digital Library has a clear strategy of sharing all system code under a free license. This will make it possible for other projects to reuse our technology to create new solutions. We are also developing APIs to give easy access to all GDL resources.

For the GDL project it is just as also important to reuse technology and components from other open source and open content projects, to make our platform better and easier to develop.

Material Design from Google

The UX/design on the GDL platform is based on the principles of Google’s Material Design, with heavy inspiration of well known layouts from large e-book providers and SoMe-platforms. Material Design makes more liberal use of grid-based layouts, responsive animations and transitions, padding, and depth effects such as lighting and shadows. GDL makes use of system fonts on the platform, to make the experience as smooth as possible for the user, and without need to load external fonts.

Icons are all taken from Google Material Icons, Google’s open source icon library (Apache License Version 2.0). They are lightweight, easy to use, and well tested for over all use. The icons are also available as a git repository, making it even easier for developers to customize, share, and re-use.

App from New York Public Library

The Global Digital Library app for Android have reused the source code for the New York Public Library’s app SimplyE and used it as a starting point for our own app. We have removed the parts we didn’t need, like support for DRM, lending books, and support for multiple user accounts (for different libraries).

We have mostly kept the same flow of the user interface, but we have rewritten all the screens to match our own design. After user testing the original app from NYPL in Nepal we have also made some important changes to the user interface, particularly focusing on how the user interacts with the app on download and reading the actual ebook.

GDL user testing in Nepal and Ethiopia

Creating a good and engaging user experience is the starting point for any development process in the GDL project. This demands user driven development processes, including a profound understanding of different user situations.

During the initial phase of the GDL project we conducted user tests of the translation tool and the early prototype of a mobile native app. To ensure relevant user feedback we conducted these user tests in Nepal and Ethiopia, two locations where the language represent different challenges for the GDL team developing the platform.

In the user testing of the mobile native app prototype, some of the things we looked for were very practical, including the following:

  • Find an e-book, search, and user categories
  • Download and organize books in “my books”
  • Read a book, including the toggling between pages

We have also conducted user tests of the functionality in Crowdin, a content translation platform that supports crowdsourcing and proofreading. This was the main purpose of our user testing workshop in Addis Ababa in June.

Some of the tests are recorded, to ensure that our development team can go back and look at the user tests at any point in the development process.

Example 1, child reading book on a mobile app

Example 2, proofreading of Amharic.

The creative commons logo

GDL content and Creative Commons

The GDL core platform will hold digital copies of Creative Commons or otherwise openly licensed, publicly accessible materials.  

The primary licenses for the GDL will be CC BY and CC BY-SA. These licenses drive innovation and creativity – including commercial reuse. Furthermore, they strongly support the overall GDL goal of sharing, translation and contextualization of early grade reading educational materials, open textbooks and open educational resources. The GDL project will also accept other CC licenses.

We are collaborating with several content platforms who are addressing the increasing public demand for sharing under CC licenses, and for public domain tools. We encourage all projects developing content to visit creativecommons.org for more information.

Creative Commons has developed a cc toolkit for user-generated content platforms. This toolkit covers the elements for a basic Creative Commons platform integration, including aligning legal terms to CC tools; installing the CC license chooser; displaying CC licensed content with the correct logos and links; and how to communicate CC to your users.

The Global Digital Library

Major progress has been made towards increasing primary school enrolment rates. Still, 250 million children of primary school age are not able to recognize basic letters and numbers, despite most of them having attended school for several years. There are also 750 million illiterate youth and adults. One important reason for one billion people not learning to read is that they do not have access to quality early grade reading resources in a language they understand.

The Global Digital Library (GDL) is being developed to increase the availability of high quality reading resources in underserved languages worldwide. “Underserved languages” refer to languages where there is currently a lack of quality early grade reading resources. “Reading resources” refer primarily to supplementary reading books and reading textbooks, but the GDL will also link to some more interactive resources, such as literacy games.

WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE GLOBAL DIGITAL LIBRARY?

The GDL will collect existing high quality open educational reading resources, and make them available on web, mobile and for print. It will also facilitate translation and localization of these resources to more than 300 languages. The GDL’s initial purpose is to support access to high quality early-grade reading resources. Other types of learning resources may be included at a later stage.

The goal is to make at least 50.000 titles in 100 languages available on the GDL-platform by the end of 2020.

WHO CAN USE THE GLOBAL DIGITAL LIBRARY?

The GDL is aimed at many different types of users and the platform will be open for everyone. Intended users include ministries of education, school managers, teachers, donor agencies and their implementing partners, international and national non-governmental organizations, local publishers, digital distributors and content providers, and households in developing countries.

WHO IS BEHIND THE GLOBAL DIGITAL LIBRARY?

The GDL-platform is a collaborative endeavor which will require involvement from a broad spectrum of stakeholders in order to be truly successful and widely used. It is being built based on existing quality learning resources provided from a variety of initiatives. The content pool will expand over time through discovery and sharing or more existing quality content, translations and localizations of the platform’s content, as well as additions of newly created content. The Platform will be designed both for direct use by a variety of user groups and for integration with existing initiatives in the field.

The Global Digital Library is part of The Global Book Alliance, an international effort involving multiple stakeholders working to transform book development, procurement and distribution to ensure that no child is without books. The mission of the Global Book Alliance is to guarantee that children everywhere have the books and learning materials they need to learn to read and read to learn.

The idea to develop a Global Digital Library for reading resources came from All Children Reading: a Grand Challenge for Development (ACR) in 2014. ACR and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) subsequently conducted joint feasibility work in 2015 and 2016, which outlined important parameters for such a project.

The GDL-platform is being developed and will initially be operated by the Norwegian Digital Learning Arena (NDLA), based on NDLA’s open source digital infrastructure. The Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) has the overall project management responsibility.

GDL-content is currently being provided by the following initiatives and organizations; StoryweaverAfrican Storybook ProjectUSAID missions, All Children Reading: a Grand Challenge for Development and Benetech. GDL’s open source-digital infrastructure has so far been provided by NDLA and the the New York Public Library.

A GDL advisory group provides technical advice and expertise input for the project implementation. The group is composed by representatives from the following organizations; All Children Reading: a Grand Challenge for DevelopmentUNESCOThe Global Partnership for Education , UNICEFthe Global Book AllianceBenetech , StoryweaverCreative Commons, and the GSMA. In addition a range of institutions and individuals have provided and are providing invaluable input.